the great minds of usc, in a world where we have seven in 9 billion people anticipating major challenges and there will be a market just as folks are using their blackberry right now to text might exciting points. [laughter] there is a need for climate change innovation, the demand creates supply. it is not i leave wishful thinking but if we anticipate on like the titanic if we can see the iceberg head and we are afraid of it is the beginning time to take proactive action to help many of us to adapt to the very scary scenario. . .
seeking to answer one question. which is, how do we get a nice to this? and in the second book, some of the chapters deal with people i know what his particular line, but the more these lines on the map have failed her people have tried and are currently trying to change some of those lines. if you handout it will look like this. these are the names of the people i looked into. a number of talk about tonight that he wants you out of the copies later when the two questions that may help formulate question or help others follow what you're talking about. what intrigued me about all of these people was none other than the fact of her as i know no
persons have been their kid that i want to establish a state line. what i found was how these people hide their own personal quest that somehow ended up at team on where a line is today. if you look at these names are the names of the outcome you'll see some are famous or not paying a penny of her toes you don't really know why nor did i i -- i don't know if i make this point. webster at the top of many. most of us don't know. stephen douglas is in the middle of this map a number of times debated abraham lincoln. but host? from our people we have heard
of, but i discovered what i heard was that whole story, were in some cases it was simply wrong. if you look to rhode island to see roger williams. i was taught in school that roger williams founded rhode island to establish targets but i didn't know what is he did it for religious reasons. he wasn't kicked out of the message of the colony because you're some loosey-goosey liberal kind that because he was two. 10 for the puritans. last night a quick example was the puritans in massachusetts at the colonial charter that created the colony begins with the words charles, by the grace of god, king of england and roger williams said, how do we know he has the grace of god? we don't know who and who does not how the grace of god in there for to reiterate to take
this land for these natives? and his fellow puritans and roger because back home he wouldn't be quite and things like that kind of kicked. another name that is very misunderstood anyone to take a few moments to talk about it because it is a springboard to the larger issue. i want to follow in discussion tonight is mason and dixon, the famous line that contributed to the map come in the mason-dixon line widely believed to be the separation of the three states from the slave states. absolutely correct. that's the mason-dixon line. it's not a line. it's three lines. it was created first or maybe mason and dixon to assess the current medicaid complex in the colonial documents that created
pennsylvania, maryland and delaware. now they don't quite know, but it could in fact be the phrase pixie comes from the name jeremiah dixon. care plan takes it was not a southerner. he wasn't even an american. charles mason and jeremiah dixon were two very eminent british scientist and to give mason and dixon to come over. they came here in 1763. in 1763 has no prohibition of slavery in any of the colonies and slavery existed in most if not all of the colonies. so the question becomes, would we get get the phrase mason-dixon line to receive from
the slave states and the answer begins here at the louisiana purchase in 1803. president jefferson made this purchase and very soon the question arose. what about slavery must be reached in? it wasn't until 1820.result in what is called the missouri compromise. the compromise was authored by henry clay and it established a line. the key word is line. the missouri compromise was a line at 36 degrees in 30 minutes, an extension give or take for serving up the boundary from birth of virginia and kentucky. and i said no new state or territory cannot slavery. with the exception of missouri i know are compromise. after that was established for use later and this is the earliest i could find. you may have already been in use
before that i found a reference page on randolph, congressman from virginia which is the earliest reference i could find to the mason-dixon line this line dividing three states from safe states. rim also to the floor of the congress, we who belong to that unfortunate portion of the confederacy, which is south of mason and dixon find an east of allegheny and david said to make up our minds to perish or be most research of the measures which refers to pose to british aggression and usurpations. it's interesting as early as 1824 and earlier already in the open with southern independence from the union later came to be called secession. it was at that point we started seeing a sure hand these dixon line. if you look at the map you will notice that part of slaveholding areas east of the alleghenies
high north of the mason-dixon line and delaware goes above the mason-dixon line. what is now west virginia at the time was so virginia said picking up north of the line. you need people to see that new hampshire has a checkerboard color. new hampshire didn't abolish slavery until the civil war. this really a shorthand that came into our language. i wanted to talk because slavery is one of the few underlying element that i want to follow a bit tonight so the people because the slavery to establish agreed to the alliance and the american map. also to talk about underlying elements that came to be entwined with slavery and disposition of this man, thomas jefferson.
in 1784 congress@thomas jefferson the task of coming up with a way to create newspapers. we needed some kind of message for doing so. this was the proposals for new state but jefferson handed in, probably the first thing to strike you is that he will be gone. nor do we keep most of the names of the two of them have kind of surprised. shaking your hand on the way out. what's intriguing to me as jefferson has a quest as well. when he issued this report and made the suggestion, he made a state that you may not quite follow everything he's suggesting you cannot get into that right after. you will hear the quest to recognize the cost of thomas jefferson. with respect to new states with
a question to stand simply in this forum how may be ultra- monte territory -- that means territory west of the allegheny mountains pedis pose to us to produce the greatest and most immediate amnesty to the inhabitants of the american states, the darker green states along the east. the plane would be laying off in the two or seats only. good faith requires us to put the question and it's just for. how many territories of the union he disposed of so as to produce the greatest degree of happiness to its inhabitants. there is a quest. jefferson had two things in mind of happiness. one was much smaller states and we ended up with. he believed he was too big to attend the continued people are too diverse groups would eventually crumble.
he knew what he was speaking because his state of virginia at that point in time included what is now virginia, can tacky in west virginia and it was not a happy state. in fact, he later broke. kentucky was seated right around this time in west virginia not until the civil war. but the other thing jefferson was talking about was who controls the senate. all these maritime safety talked of coming the darker green states on the map ever of its waterways to the atlantic. list of the appellation waterways flow unless they go directly into the coal fields relate primarily to the mississippi river. at that point in time, the mississippi river was controlled by spain and what is now tennessee has not yet been made as they proclaim themselves as
he puts out congresses approval cold drinks in an he talked about proclaiming themselves the republic called franklyn and no communication haitians with pain for navigation along the mississippi river. though congress had to get its act in gear pronto. they also wanted in terms of payment to inflict who would control the river. the biggest revision -- the first question i want to point out is when the congress to tinker with the founding fathers vision? we hear a lot today about treating it restrain from the founder's vision. it began 18 days after jefferson handed in his report. they started to tinker with it. the baker changed in three years later congress passed northwestward mintz. that divided the area in a cream called the northwest territory. in the spirit of time they started creating and laying out what became the future
boundaries for a kentucky, alabama and tennessee in as you can see the tutelage of his position on all. and as you can see some of these lines are in fact the lines that exist in the states today are illinois, indiana and ohio. you can also see who controls the senate because if you edit the states in this region today, they cannot equal the number of states in the maritime side. this is probably the biggest gerrymander in the history of the united states. two of these lines are not lines we have today for the next question is, what happens at the horizontal and vertical line through lake michigan? listening and helping. jesse holley affected worst headlines and any other person with the exception of stephena douglas. jesse holley today from jail.
jesse holley was a flower merchant in western new york independent on the mohawk river to =tranfour the flower to the markets from the east. at the time the mohawk river was not fully navigable and the company that controlled the navigation on the shipping company had promised to merchants moving in to western new york two with improved navigation. but they didn't and jesse holley and others went bankrupt. and when you go bankrupt in those years you go to debtors prison. while he was imprisoned hero a series of articles he published in newspapers using a pseudonym because being a debtor's prison of pack for the resume. he described an idea that he had that idea with erie canal. jesse alley was not the first person to imagine such a canal,
the pirates away in box number one -- but today due? let's go back. it is the erie canal. he begins in buffalo at the eastern end of lake erie and crosses or western europe were these the hudson river and goes down to the port of new york. it turns all of the great lakes into a highway of commerce from the midwest to the antic ocean. the geography of western new york so well in the geology, the underground structures in my college is mycology salome road reports for so much detail. with the governor of new york used to alter or it's as his bible and getting the legislature of new york to fund
security canal and it was expensive. they called it clinton's ditch. but the erie canal altered the proposed foundries of every state or future state around pole of the great lakes, beginning first -- i'm sorry. this patent. pennsylvania was negotiating his country with new york. when it concluded them coming and ended up with the little tab at the western end of pennsylvania and not tab gives it a port on lake erie. just below box three you'll see the red line is the line from the ordinance of 1787 that congress establish. but then with the erie canal, congress moved to northern border of indiana north 10 miles to get it imported to.
you see ohio's porterville. but it is in the streets for miles. why did congress congress did congress know that for 10 miles? pianist whose congress didn't move it. ohio did. we will come back to that in a moment here and box five and six on the map are over in the box to the left. that's wisconsin. two changes made to the territory of wisconsin due to the erie canal. one was the western boundary number five taken away from the future state of wisconsin and get into the future state created to its last, which is minnesota and i provided minnesota with support at duluth. and the number six shows the upper opinion below which extends off the wisconsin. the line down there between ohio and michigan.
when ohio wrote a constitution for statehood in 1803, and they suspected that this line duties from the bottom of lake michigan in 1787. keep in mind has its own paper doesn't mean people know it really is. this is the cut off the western river in ohio for the support or where it empties into lake erie at toledo. they described them as coming from the northern and a top of toledo to the bottom of the trade lake michigan. that is why ohio is start the angled line. congressman -- they recognized ohio made a little shift. they did see it is typically
deal until the 1830s when this man became the boy governor of michigan. stephen mason was 19 years old when president jackson appointed the secretary of michigan, made in the governor because the governor at that point had basically gone fishing. the people in michigan were outraged this letters to the president saying please get rid of this kid give this man a governor. so mason had a quest to know us to show an enemy had the moxie to leave this. when he became a governor and later the territorial governor, were not talking the early 1830s. there were more canal is being built because of the erie canal.
one in particular was called the wabash and erie canal. it connected the wabash river or the circle is on the map to the mommy repair. what i did was create a waterway through the hinterland of the united states -- this is now looking at this map. if you started nor lindsay go to mississippi for the ohio river to the wabash river through the wabash and erie canal into lake erie, through lake erie to the erie canal to the hudson. that is incredible highway and the hub is toledo. as stephen mason was the first governor to challenge that adjustment that ohio made and
the governor of ohio, robert lucas said hey, we erased tape. yuri territory. you cannot alter a state line without her consent. i am abbreviating things are missed here, the mason cityoutcome of this term is going to stop this? ecliptic territorial militia. lucas had my attorney will call you and we are too malicious his two thieves and what is known is toledo war, which almost part the full-scale combat, but didn't because congress quickly intervened and said to michigan, how about this? located this peninsula appear cutting off -- what is it? wisconsin. hardly anyone living near. and if we do not how about you in ohio have its way? to simplify, michigan and they
said okay we'll take the deal. robert lucas went on to become the territorial vitter iowa it was in that capacity we begin to return a route it to thomas jefferson. lucas to have a quest. he was quite a character. but to take a moment to retreat three excerpts from the the times of robert lucas. the first is from the cleveland herald 838. so this is after he has won the dispute with michigan and just appointed to become the territorial cover of ohio. ex-governor lewis is one of the most disturbing mended the party we tell novel pretty good cover new territory of iowa. he is old-fashioned, honest and intelligent western pioneer.
the second is a letter to lucas wrote in the years earlier during the war of 1812 when he was a young officer and he wrote this letter to a fellow officer. what is important to keep in mind this war is your hearing. he put in writing. he wrote, never was. more patriotic ernie the were completely in their power to accomplish every object it is higher desire that the president and they must not be something discourteous for want of a general. neither was ever a man of talent as there are so shamefully opposed to in the cell or treacherous commander. first of all, kramer is imperfect because the man was self educated, but smart. secondly, you put that in writing you could get a lot of trouble. this is indian who see in ohio and the war of 1812 a pioneer
which is to say he would go and get what he wanted. example number three of this is private ohio paper in 1832.81832 years before the conflict of michigan altogether. one kernel of the regimen and something younger than he is now, lucas seduced a young lady who sued for breach of marriage contracted bad judgment against him. when he put all his pretty obvious here nothing could be god -- that nothing could be cut he issued orders to come and rescue him in the custody of the law. that meant they didn't come and rescue him and he had to make good on his type. but this is one whalley will
have a guy appeared by the time he became a guy, the governor of ohio and now territorial governor via he still allocated in the theater to do with a couple rules. when he became -- when he became the cover to kill a come ironically he immediately encountered an identical boundary conflict he had in ohio between the southern border of iowa and northern border of missouri. the only difference was he was now territorial governor opposing the governor of the state and opposing the way boundary had been surveyed compared to the way it had been stipulated. i will quit the details of that. the point is lucas on it.
he played his cards differently. that was much more and ultimately iowa won that conflict. lucas also wanted a different weather order for iowa. designed expensing away. they follow the mississippi river at mesa street lane in the northwest takes to the big sioux river to the missouri river. and can it stay in a in comparison to other states in the northwest territory. it's our iowa he would not comment further. what i okemah for statehood the scene you'll didn't make ohio opposed it. what is important is that hermione congress about
jefferson's original vision in 1784 canal congress in 1787 street from that vision. the tin went on to say this. what is the effect of this change? the vast and fertile region from ohio, lakes and mississippi, despite states, ohio, in vienna wisconsin has been reduced from 12 to 14 states to find that the most i could never have become those in the senate. as inequitable compensation to a western country or this fragrant injustice would make a series of small state pick this up you are. he poststrike partner or are you i think the topic.
at this will post a straight line. that is an arbitrary line. and the question that i want to deal with now is wasn't in her recovery line? answer to that begins with this man, stephen douglas. douglas has had to war lines and the other person the map. he is one of those people that we've heard of him when he debated lincoln. he did. he also beat pink mini 1858 senate race and douglas won on election. but douglas also had a quest. his quest was to become president of the united states and he tried to do that by preventing this nation for deciding over slavery. so it's via stephen douglas the issue of slavery and the vision of thomas jefferson began to become intertwined.
and it starts here. the united states won the mexican war in 1848 and in doing so the treaty that ended the war, the united states acquired the standard yellow and very quickly the question came up as did the louisiana purchase about slavery because southerners saw the missouri compromise line is going to maintain between free states and slave states. many of the state lines but douglas did that would have missouri compromise line itself with this pill, which toklas broke. in this map, the red line is the missouri compromise line. but the main thing about the nebraska hack it is said we are not going to use a line anymore.
duhamel realm to regulate where it will be or not be. if states and territories will decide for themselves whether or not to have slavery. it was a huge dust storm. when they finally enacted the act, not too many people noticed douglas made a change in his proposal. initially proposed the southern border of kansas at 36 degrees 30 minutes. it made sense. it made it adjacent to the top of taxpayers in 1840 if and however long missouri. but he entered an amendment to raise the boundary by one half of one degree. that left a gap. the cap is now peony until of oklahoma. why did he do it?
by the wit but what does that have to do at the northern border of iowa? [laughter] days. you create in claim of 37 degrees, whether intentionally or not i can't tell you because stephen douglas never spoke to directly to his intentions are. what evolved over the upcoming years were a teacher. state with exactly three decrease of. just to the west the same day find it here and now states was good for agriculture with four degrees of high. colorado, wyoming and montana. if you look at iona, it is almost exactly three degrees of heidi. more to the point will we see here is jefferson's vision for space created from a mathematical prototype has finally emerged from the map.
in fact, congress could frequently making peace with seven degrees at work. north dakota, helped cota, washington and oregon all have been decrease weight. washington and oregon critique of coast. others are close to seven degrees. so we have a prototype of jefferson ministry of note. we go from jefferson to robert lucas just e-mail but to stephen douglas and jefferson returned to the american map. here he is again. when you leave today you will know with stephen douglas was before he dated a one-man congressman who later ran for president. neither piece of legislation until the slavery that stephen douglas was a great participate
as the compromise of 1850. a package of five bills and he was involved in two in particular. but what i want to talk about is to build that involve texas. texas when it entered the union had been a republic was much larger from the texas cat today. they continued furthermore it all the way to wyoming, tapering of that went. he relinquished all of its land north of 36 degrees 30 minutes because the missouri compromise was still in effect and they have slavery in texas wanted to keep it so they let the united states have that land. it still included all the land east of the rio grande, which is today the eastern half of new mexico you see here. it also included a whole lot of said it had incurred any takers of the republic. so in 1850, the texas bill pay
texas' best buddy to get out of debt and in return bop is planned that is today part of new mexico. in those two lines that define the lynnwood pop from texas were established by stephen douglas. it's no trick to understand the horizontal line at the bottom of the purchase of el paso, an important asset of mountains and the state of texas. but this horizontal line -- why did he put this line where it is? that is 103 degrees west longitude. how about 105 or 100? what is with 103 degrees. the answer to that surfaced in 1861 when new mexico territory was divided to create theories of the territory. the delicate for the new mexico territory was the man a job lot. it was through watts at this
point divided to create arizona was proposed. a congressman from new york, willing we'll hear is the only reason you put this line here is because it continues from the loins of reading colorado and utah city could this work and going on. lots disagreed with. it created almost exactly equal territories out of new mexico and arizona. he also spoke to the issue of race and that is where really gets interesting to me. i may explain francisco perea appeared francisco perea came from an old wealthy mexican family and wanted in the mexican product of nuevo mexico.
as the united states was approaching a war, he went up and down the rio grande valley were virtually on the hispanic population was seven or, urging that to remain loyal to the union of the civil war broke out, arizona did become a steep, but it became aristide in 19 divided self. it's invited the horizontal light in the middle. the southern half was arizona. the northern half was new mexico. the unions that troops in to reclaim the land from texans who would mean it as there were several battles won by the u.n. troops cemetery was reclaimed by the union. or something else about this in a population among the rio grande is many of them have
darker skin and so this is what john was when we come back to congress in 1861 also spoke to in terms of this horizontal -- this vertical boundary he proposed. i find his words fascinating. third many men in the territory of new mexico who pay living constantly in the open-air and exposed to the raise of the burning sun have become bronzing complexion. he's stepping race. whatever may be their color, the treaty stipulations between the united states and republic of mexico have invested them with privileges and immunities of american citizens. the first duty which the government owes to his people is to give military and civil protection. in this case the government is under a total obligation. texaco was compelled to relinquish her right to a portion of territory in the
right to protect a portion of her people and dear to her by 10,000 pleasant memories and hopes and doubly endeared by 10,000 painful for voting for future. well, forebodings can be described as a five letter word of the hispanic population among the rio grande. i will just split. texas. texas where people would come into mexico from the province of tejas and then it became a state in the union they were now migrated to carry out arizona. the hispanic population was nervous for their culture and their future. if you look at the geometry of design that john was proposed
committee puts the rio grande as best as possible in the center of the new mexico territory in the largest population centers in a phase three degrees texas and three degrees from arizona, creating a future state six degrees it at the same 10 arizona roughly six degrees wide and the amount of area who would entail. for the geometry to work you have to have a line of 103 degrees west longitude, the line that stephena douglas originally proposed. in my opinion, that i missed the most brilliantly located line on the american map. i douglas' efforts for the controversial, particularly the scrapping of government regulation of slavery. who is a numerous amount of suspicion in the run-up to this will war about aversive
northerners and efforts by southerners. one of those was senator thomas benson notes missouri. he was the great uncle of the great painter. he thought stephen douglas is kansas nebraska act was part of a conspiracy. i want to read what is on the florida senate when they competed the act describing the conspiracy. i must now look for the real object of particular purpose for which it was manufactured in the green movement of which it is the basis. first, the mission of mr. gaston hunter in gatson must have commenced about the time of this bill and then conceived the time
of this bill. $50 million for his much mexican territory on their southern border has been five or six days. thankfully the michigan country and ambassador of $250 million for cuba. we'll talk about cuba in a minute. the nebraska bill is only entering wedge to future enterprises, is a manufactured for particular purpose, a steppingstone to a cream with which is to develop itself in this country at large. what senator bentsen was saying as he saw a nightmare paystub three bad dreams. bad dude number one with the gatson just. he was a southerner i would say to this particular quest in his adult life was to preserve the
culture lifestyle of this country. he wanted to preserve slavery. isaiah and an officer of the military who repeatedly tried to ingratiate with tom c. calhoun. he may not have been the brightest bulb in the chandelier because calvin did pick out. but i won't be getting intuitiveness talk at this moment, his mission to mexico caught a little file that because of some of the things he did. when he was dispatched by the united states government to go to mexico, he was to buy land for a railroad to cri de coeur and cut them a railroad being planned for the middle of the country. we talked today about the business and involvement with
government or the amount of money big business has been campaigns. at this point, james gatson was a railroad president. in 1853, taxpayers spent billions of dollars to acquire land so the real rose could build a railroad they could drop your profits run. but as a peer is the fact we didn't be delayed to create a southerner attleboro road. the white line the east he could be the without making the perp is. this one gatson was talking about and did in san diego which is peppered time as a military base and it went off all land where there is no commerce, no future for agriculture.
or they make a purchase we don't dare? didn't suspect a hidden agenda. the suspicion was paid by the fact he tried to purchase all that land. and it was up $15 million. penn said he was to spend $55 million. they were broke the mexican war with the united states. so see it and was able to persuade his people to sell just enough land to raise just enough money so they can arm themselves and defend themselves against the people to whom they were selling the land. if you wanted a great deal more. then there is bad dream number two. that was the kansas the brass cat. letting people decide for
themselves, then appeared kansas who choose to become a slave state in nebraska would be for you. turned out after violence and bloodshed it ultimately became eastgate did not know if knowing that in 1854. authority was admitted to the union as a single state did not have slavery had debated becoming two states the movement to divide california into two states. the new mexico territory had not yet been divided, but there was the idea that it may divide horizontally. as we mentioned a moment tech the affair was made so bentsen had to fear there is whole thing west regarding slave states increased heat.
this was bad nightmare number three. he mentioned investors to lay blame for this pain which did. but there is a secret plan widely discussed to raise a private army and invade cuba and re-enslave kenyans who are either black or mixed black enough for cuba to the united states. this wasn't the plan of some kook. this was organized the governor of mississippi, john quit. it was less secret from the bay of pigs. one on top says general put the contemplated cuba. i love the one in the bottom right that says the cuba movement further preparations
for the invasion of cuba. it was widely discussed in the papers but officially the government didn't know were shouldn't have to stop it. right before equipment launched his invasion, president franklin pearce told him it was a no go. told to it because the kansas brassica act had been passed in such an uproar that the invasion of cuba would bring. but taken together bad dreams number one, two and three created this nightmare that there could be a belt of slave states urge enough to defend itself and to sustain itself as an independent nation.
so in fact, he wasn't crazy for adding those fears. there are countless people who have contributed to state boundaries decided from the white men i've been talking about, i want to quickly mention people from all walks of life. native americans child's chief green curtain who sought to create a native americans state called sequoia which would've occupied the eastern state of oklahoma. sequoia was involved in negotiations that establish the boundary between oklahoma and arkansas ironic fittingly. she's standing there impacted on the northern border of nebraska. there were african-american.
edward p. mccabe sought to meet oklahoma and african majority state. benjamin banneker served the boundary line for the district of columbia in 1791. that is quite a cake for a black dated 1791. even today eleanor holmes norton seeks to create and bring voting rights to the district of columbia also a propose statehood would alter the boundaries by creating a federal enclave that would be separate at the district of columbia, the state of new columbia. there were hispanics. and mention francisco perea. was it although was the reading of transmitting voice puerto rico becoming misty.
they didn't follow his advice that they get elected the governor and after savanna creek of admiration. and there were some women. women were given as a table. they had more impact and influence that i know of. the queen lili upper ronnie of hawaii's skilled on behalf of the hawaiian nation. this is corina nichols who was involved in the convention and the creation of kansas and once again eleanor holmes norton. to me all these people in their quest create a mere 11 not going to crash of americans. they did what they did and when and where they did it turns the mayoral when you step away into a portrait of who we are today
and honest book of of mine is all about. thank you. much. [applause] [inaudible] [laughter] >> , i wasn't speaking blurb. it connects new hampshire took ethan allen. the green mountain boys came into existence because at the time there was no vermont. new hampshire always believed billy west is part of new hampshire that the king of england in 1763 to new york.
by that time new hampshire had already sold and in what is today for pond indeed it in new hampshire. new york started selling the same land indeed new york. some of the land was owned but even allen and his brothers competed in new hampshire and they formed a vigilante called the green mountain boys were not new yorkers who lay claim to the land. ethan allen never built or made furniture. he burned a good deal of it. [laughter] he was talk to her. when the revolution broke out in i can play my cards differently with the green mountain boys who knows her or the green mountain
boys from high school history. there is the connection. yes, ma'am. [inaudible] three that oklahoma was originally a territory called indian territory. it was used when he ethnically cleansed indians from southeastern states. they were shipped out to reservations in oklahoma. a perch in a turn-of-the-century come the laid earlier. it became a steep and doing that night congress has to change the way land was titled in that territory. it was held by tribes and the dogs act gave citizenship to the ends of those tribes in return for the tribes distributing land
title by individual to be in that enabled it to be sold and broken. it is sort of a complicated thing. what is fascinating most is the lines were pretty much in place. because there were three movements would take place virtually simultaneously. first was a tab a native american tribes to create their own steep to join together in the convention to do this. at the same time they would not, the tribal lands were at the eastern end when edward the cave and others were urging her advertisements and berkshires african-americans to migrate to the newly opened lands in western oklahoma so that it can become an african-american majority stake to escape
persecution of the south. theodore roosevelt told both sides neither one will happen. i am going to veto it so stop. and then there is a third convention, which was basically included native americans and whites, that blacks were not welcome. that created the state of oklahoma which wanted to embed in their constitution white supremacy. and to do that he had to define away person. they did it in a way that indians were white people. other delegates said teddy roosevelt is never going to sign a law without constitution. simply created oklahoma in the first to the legislature was to
segregate. >> would you please discuss your relationship between tom and pat and ann brigham young in utah and the mormons. >> fremont -- i believe it was a son-in-law. so bit with a backer of fremont, a general in the mexican-american war and without intent he probably wouldn't be in our history books while because her efforts to court-martial him. i don't ever see him as much of this but because it would affect the boundary. you asked about someone else. >> brigham young was a morbid leader. he led the largest contingent ornaments from illinois to utah in 184748. he envisioned creation of the
state which had been created what if he'll ever hit by california. congress is not going to let us take that be created. they were happy about the size of california or texas. texas cohort created themselves. i don't have time to go into each one, but they are in the books. an interesting thing is he dispatched a morbid older they'd can't call 24 mayport at the furthest and applicable point on the colorado river. the colorado river enters into the coastal california. along with that comes from california. the water between my mexico is the gold with california where the colorado river and peer today there's not much there
because of your occasion, but that it is not to dwell on the way up to a certain point. it was very important commerce to the mormons what they hoped would be desiree at, but even utah. it was in arizona as it turned out wants congress created the lines. after the civil war payback time to arizona for trying to become a federated state in the triangle guy get into nevada and became a triangle at the bottom of nevada. one of the reasons was colville was importantly indeed on the colorado river. you can see colville today but she'll have to go under 30400 feet of water because the hoover dam on the colorado river created lake mead and colville at the bottom of lake mead.